The 36th Seoul International Tourism Industry Fair hosted by the World Trade Fair was held for 4 days from June 24 to 27 at COEX in Seoul.
This year, despite the difficult situation around the world due to the corona virus, more than 50 countries participated in the event mainly through their respective tourism agencies or diplomatic missions in Korea.
In order to welcome the Seoul International Tourism Industry Fair, a world traditional clothing fashion show featuring world costumes from 50 countries was held, hosted by Chairperson Jin Hyang-ja of the Hanbok Promotion Association.
The world costumes from 50 countries were donated through costume exchanges with the diplomatic missions in Korea.
In particular, on the first day of June 24, about 50 models led by CEO Kim Won-guk of World Peace Volunteer Mission, and PR Ambassador Yeom Geum-suk performed the Korea-Tajikistan Traditional Costume Fashion Show.
The fashion show was attended by Ambassador Yusuf-Sharifzoda of Tajikistan and Madam and Chairperson Jin Hyang-ja of the Hanbok Promotion Association.
In addition, diplomats from the Tajikistan Embassy and other embassies in Seoul attended and enjoyed the costume show with great interest.
Chairperson Jin Hyang-ja of the World Costume Diplomacy and Cultural Exchange Association, who is directly responsible for the world traditional costume show, is a veteran world costume designer who has been conducting cultural exchanges with the diplomatic missions in Korea through world costumes for over 30 years.
She said that Tajikistan has a long history and beautiful traditional costumes just like Korea, and the Tajikistan costume 'Kurta' is a splendid, elegant and artistic attire.
Chairperson Jin said that she thought about two meanings while preparing for this Korean-Tajikistan traditional fashion show.
She said, “Economic and cultural activities such as tourism, travel and commerce have frozen around the world since the COVID-19, and I think that we will break this atmosphere through the Korea-Tajikistan traditional fashion show.”
She added, “Next year, we hope to hold a fashion show in Tajikistan for traditional costumes between the two countries in celebration of the 30th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations between Korea and Tajikistan.”
Ambassador Yusuf-Sharifzoda of Tajikistan in Seoul presented a letter of appreciation to the models and officials who participated as volunteers in the Korea-Tajikistan Traditional Costume Show that day.
At the fashion show, in particular, Vietnamese (Ao dai), Chinese (Cheongsam), Japanese (Kimono), and Indian (Sari), as well as South American and European costumes were accorded great attention.
The Hanbok (in South Korea) or Chosŏn-ot (in North Korea) is the traditional Korean clothes. The term "Hanbok" literally means "Korean clothing".
Origin of Hanbok can be traced back to the Three Kingdoms of Korea period (1st century BC–7th century AD), with roots in the peoples of what is now northern Korea and Manchuria. According to Wikipedia, early forms of Hanbok can be seen in the art of the tomb murals of the Goguryeo Kingdom in the same period, with the earliest mural paintings dating to back to the 5th century.
From this time, the basic structure of Hanbok consisted of the Jeogori jacket, Baji pants, Chima skirts, and the Po coat. The basic structure of Hanbok was designed to facilitate ease of movement and integrated many motifs of Shamanistic nature. These basic structural features of Hanbok remains relatively unchanged to this day. However, present-day Hanbok which is worn nowadays is patterned after the Hanbok worn in the Joseon Dynasty of the Yi kings of Korea.
The clothing of Korea's rulers and aristocrats was influenced by both foreign and indigenous styles, including significant influences from various Chinese dynasties, resulting in some styles of clothing, such as the Simui from Song dynasty, Gwanbok worn by male officials were generally adopted from and/or influenced by the court clothing system of the Tang, Song, and Ming dynasties, and Court clothing of women in the court and women of royalty were adapted from the clothing style of Tang and Ming dynasties, the Cheolik from the Mongol clothing and bestowed from the Ming court, and the Magoja from Manchu clothing.
The cultural exchange was also bilateral and Goryeo Hanbok had cultural influence on some clothing of Yuan dynasty worn by the upper class (i.e. the clothing worn by Mongol royal women's clothing and in the Yuan imperial court. Commoners were less influenced by these foreign fashion trends, and mainly wore a style of indigenous clothing distinct from that of the upper classes.
However, the closure of the Jeogori to the right is an imitation of the Han Chinese jackets.
These days, Koreans wear Hanbok for formal or semi-formal occasions and events such as festivals, celebrations, and ceremonies, especially the lunar New Year’s Day and the Chuseok Mid-August Festival Day. In 1996, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established "Hanbok Day" to encourage the citizens to wear the Hanbok.
The first recorded evidence of the name Hanbok is from a 1881 document Jeongchiilgi. In the document, Hanbok was used to distinguish Korean clothing from Japanese traditional clothing and Western clothing. Hanbok was used in an 1895 document describing the assassination of Empress Myeongseong to distinguish Korean clothing from Japanese clothing. Origin of the name remains unclear, because these documents predate the Korean Empire (Daehan Jeguk).
Beginning in 1900, Korean newspapers used the Hanja Han in words that describe Korean clothing, such as Hanguguibok, Hangugyebok and Daehannyeobok.
Hanbok was used in a 1905 newspaper article, which described the righteous army wearing Korean clothing. After the March 1st Movement, Hanbok became a significant ethnic symbol of Koreans.
Influenced by rising nationalism in the 1900s, Hanbok became a word that means unique clothing of Koreans that can be distinguished from others, such as Japanese, Western, and Chinese clothing. Other words with the same meaning, Uriot and Joseonot, were concurrently used. Joseonot, which was more popular in the north, replaced others in North Korea after the division of Korea.
Traditionally, women's Hanbok consist of the Jeogori (a blouse shirt or a jacket) and the Chima (a full, wrap-around skirt). The ensemble is often known as 'Chima Jeogori'. Men's Hanbok consist of Jeogori and loose fitting Baji (trousers).
Jeogori is the basic upper garment of the Hanbok, worn by both men and women. It covers the arms and upper part of the wearer's body. The basic form of a Jeogori consists of Gil, Git, Dongjeong, Goreum and sleeves. Gil is the large section of the garment on both front and back sides, and Git is a band of fabric that trims the collar. Dongjeong is a removable white collar placed over the end of the Git and is generally squared off. The Goreum are coat-strings that tie the Jeogori. Women's Jeogori may have Ggeutdong, a different colored cuff placed at the end of the sleeves. Two Jeogori may be the earliest surviving archaeological finds of their kind. One from a Yangcheon Heo clan tomb is dated 1400–1450, while the other was discovered inside a statue of the Buddha at Sangwonsa Temple (presumably left as an offering) that has been dated to the 1460s.
Jeogori and Chima: The form of Jeogori has changed over time. While men's Jeogori remained relatively unchanged, women's Jeogori dramatically shortened during the Joseon dynasty, reaching its shortest length at the late 19th century. However, due to reformation efforts and practical reasons, modern Jeogori for women is longer than its earlier counterpart. Nonetheless, the length is still above the waistline. Traditionally, Goreum were short and narrow, however modern Goreum are rather long and wide. There are several types of Jeogori varying in fabric, sewing technique, and shape.
Chima: China refers to "skirt," which is also called Sang or Gun (裙) in Hanja. The underskirt, or petticoat layer, is called Sokchima. According to ancient murals of Goguryeo and an earthen toy excavated from the neighborhood of Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju, Goguryeo women wore a Chima with Jeogori over it, covering the belt.
Although striped, patchwork, and gored skirts are known from the Goguryeo and Joseon periods, Chima were typically made from rectangular cloth that was pleated or gathered into a skirt band. This waistband extended past the skirt fabric itself and formed ties for fastening the skirt around the body.
Sokchima was largely made in a similar way to the overskirts until the early 20th century when straps were added, later developing into a sleeveless bodice or 'reformed' petticoat. By the mid-20th century, some outer Chima had also gained a sleeveless bodice, which was then covered by the Jeogori.
Baji: Baji refers to the bottom part of the men's hanbok. It is the formal term for 'trousers' in Korean. Compared to Western style pants, it does not fit tightly. The roomy design is aimed at making the clothing ideal for sitting on the floor. It functions as modern trousers do, but nowadays the term Baji is commonly used in Korea for any kinds of pants. There is a band around the waistline of a Baji for tying in order to fasten.
Baji can be unlined trousers, leather trousers, silk pants, or cotton pants, depending on style of dress, sewing method, embroidery and so on.
Po: Po is a generic term referring to an outer robe or overcoat. There are two general types of Po, the Korean type and the Chinese type.
The Korean type is a common style from the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, and it is used in modern day. A belt was used until it was replaced by a ribbon during late Joseon dynasty. Durumagi is a variety of Po that was worn as protection against cold. It had been widely worn as an outer robe over Jeogori and Baji. It is also called Jumagui, Juchaui, or Juui.
The Chinese type is different styles of Po from China. Starting from north–south states period, they were used through history until nationwide adoption of the Korean type Durumagi in 1895.
Jokki and Magoja: Jokki is a type of vest, while Magoja is an outer jacket. Although Jokki and Magoja were created at the end of the Joseon dynasty, directly after which Western culture began to affect Korea, the garments are considered traditional clothing. Each is additionally worn over Jeogori for warmth and style. Magoja clothing was originally styled after the clothing of Manchu people, and was introduced to Korea after Heungseon Daewongun, the father of King Gojong, returned from his political exile in Tianjin in 1887.
Magoja were derived from the Magwae he wore in exile because of the cold climate there. Owing to its warmth and ease of wear, Magoja became popular in Korea. It is also called "Deot Jeogori" (literally "an outer Jeogori") or Magwae.
Magoja does not have Git, the band of fabric trimming the collar, nor Goreum (tying strings), unlike Jeogori and Durumagi (an overcoat). Magoja was originally a male garment but later became unisex. The Magoja for men has Seop overlapped column on the front) and is longer than women's Magoja, so that both sides are open at the bottom. A Magoja is made of silk and is adorned with one or two buttons which are usually made from amber. In men's Magoja, buttons are attached to the right side, as opposed to the left as in women's Magoja.